Xenofiction: Honestly, most of the short stories written in this universe qualify.
Inside the Chinese Room is told from the perspective of an artificial intelligence that doesn’t think like a human, if it thinks at all.
And A World Lost kind of makes the Federation look like aliens.
Well, that’s the end of the list of tropes I have on TVTropes, feel free to suggest more.
Useless Spleen: The microbot minifac that most Federation citizens have implanted to maintain their microbots typically replaces the spleen, as its’ functions can be replaced by the immune responses of the microbots.
Uplifted Animal: In addition to modifying humans with animal genes, some of the corporations that created the first parahumans uplifted fairly intelligent animals that might be considered useful in microgravity. Apes were obvious with their four “hands”, octopi for similar reasons; dolphins, parrots, ravens, and sea lions were a bit less apparent due to their lack of manipulators but their ability to think in three dimensions was deemed invaluable and the corporations wanted to experiment, for IP reasons really.
Twin Telepathy: Somehow, monozygotic siblings sometimes share entangled particles in their nervous systems that allow a degree of thought-sharing. And unlike normal q-comms there isn’t any known limit to the number of times those particles can be “used”.
The House of Silver has been known to use chemical and/or nanotechnological agents to induce twinning in embryos so as to overwhelm the market for unlimited-use FTL communication.
Terraform: The majority of planets colonized by the Federation had no native biospheres of note when discovered, including two of the three Core Worlds. While it took over five centuries to terraform SecLand advances in nanotechnology have given shirtsleeve environments to other planets in less than a single century, often while the colonists are still in transit.
There’s some debate on whether Outworlders should be sent to inhabitable or terraformed planets. When the program started the concern was about “wasting” inhabitable planets on exiles, now those who object to dumping them on inhabitable planets are either concerned for the welfare of the involuntary colonists or the environments they’re being inflicted upon. After all, just because one can survive in an environment without an enclosure suit doesn’t mean its’ friendly.
Technology Uplift: While the Federation is taking a careful approach with the kershkans, they generally allow free traders to give Outworlds anything besides radio or nanotechnology. If the tech can’t be made without nanofabrication, all the better.
Starfish Aliens: The kershkans, the first sapient living aliens contacted by the Federation, are trilaterally symmetrical for starters. Three legs, three arms, three recessed pits of photosensitive skin…
They also live on a hot, high oxygen and low pressure planet, different enough for parahumans and kershkans to require environment suits on each others’ planets.
Society of Immortals: The Federation, in contrast to the Outworlds where nanotechnology is barred. The notion that one might not want to live forever is generally considered a form of clinical depression and treated as such.
And the possibility of aging is one of the most terrifying prospects to Federation citizens, hence why the Outworlds program works.